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Proceedings of National Seminar on Ethnic Relation in Manipur: Past, Present and Future


National Seminar on Ethnic Relation in Manipur: Past, Present and Future (1314 Sept. 2014) at Kangla Hall, orgd. Jointly by the National Research Centre, Manipur & State Council of Educational Research and Training (SCERT), Govt. of Manipur

Rapporteur: Aheibam Koireng Singh

Asst. Professor, CMS, Manipur University

Session 1:

Ethnic relation and development


Prof. Amar Yumnam


Dr. Syed Ahmed, Assistant Professor, History Dept., Dhanamanjuri College of Arts,


Dr. Chinglen Maishnam, Associate Professor, Economics Dept., Manipur University


Dr. Seikhohao Kipgen, History Dept., Manipur College.


Dr. Syed Ahmed presented a paper titled Muslims in the history of Manipur. His paper simply tries to highlight some of the significant roles and contributions made by the Muslims in the history of Manipur. Muslims (Pangal/Meitei-Pangal) constitute almost 9% (2 lakh) of the total population of the State. Manipuri speaking Muslims are also found scattered in parts of Assam (Barak Valley), Tripura, Bangladesh and Myanmar. They found their way to these places in the wake of the Chahi Taret Khuntakpa (1819-26) or Seven Years of Devastation. Muslims became a significant part of the Manipuri society from the early part of the 17th century during the reign of King Khagemba (1597-1652) when one thousand Muslim soldiers, led by a General Muhammad Shani, from Taraf in Sylhet were captured and later settled in the valley of Manipur. The events of the Muslim invasion are recorded extensively in Nongsamei Puya and Pangal Thorakpa. However, there are evidences and records which suggest presence of few Muslim families before the reign of King Khagemba. It is believed that the progenitors of the Aribam sagei were the earliest Muslim inhabitants in Manipur. Muslims in small number continued to come and settle down in the valley of Manipur even after the reign of King Khagemba.  As most of the Muslim captives were endowed with skills in different trades and vocations, the secular and forward-looking King Khagemba possibly realized the advantage of settling them in his kingdom. The indigenous sources (esp.Nongsamei and Pangal Thorakpa) are replete with instances of rewarding the Muslims with local women as wives and land in appreciation for their skills in different trades. Interestingly, many of the Muslim families were given family titles, which later became the name of their sagei (clan or lineage group), on the basis of their vocations. For instance, Phu-sam-mayum: pot maker, Phundrei-mayum: carpenters who used phundrei/lathe, Che-sam: paper maker, Khut-hei-bam: skilled in handicraft and designing, Kori-mayum: those who made copper utensils, Hawai-igkhol-mayum: lentil cultivators, Phisa-bam-mayum: weavers, Hidak-ingkhol-mayum: tobacco cultivators, Mansam-mayum: acrobats, Sangom-sum-pham: those who produce milk and its products, etc. The process of the settlement of Muslims in Manipur was made complete by King Khagemba with the establishment of an administrative office (loishang) exclusively for the Muslims called Pangal Sanglen, also referred to as Mangal (Mughal) shang at Kangla. The principal head of the Sanglen was designated as Kazi, who was authorized to take up the general administration of the Muslims, including judicial matters.  Gradually the Muslims were integrated into the local culture. They absorbed a number of local customs and traditions, which were seen in their language, dress, food habits, habitation pattern, social organization, life-cycle rituals, past-times, festivities, beliefs, etc. They started using Meiteilon as their mother-tongue. Their womenfolk adopted phanek, khudei, khwangnam (a piece of cloth tied around the waists of married women), etcas their traditional dress. They started to relish themselves with the local food-items (esp. uti, eromba, kangsoi, ngari, etc.). They started constructing their houses just like that of the Meities. Their marriage custom was a striking amalgamation of the Islamic (nikah) and Meitei traditions. The traditional games and sports of Manipur (mukna, mukna kangjei, sagol kangjei, yubi lakpi, etc.) became the favourite past-time for the Muslims. Surprisingly, the Muslim community made all these adjustments without loosing their Islamic identity. Muslims soon became useful and productive subjects of the kingdom. They rendered their military services and offered their skills in different trades and vocations, which helped in enhancing and enriching the economy of the kingdom.  Muslims served military and economic duties under the lallup system (military organization).They took part in many of the military campaigns made by kings of Manipur. King Khagemba for the first time inducted Muslims in his army during his campaign against Maring tribes. They took part in the Battle of Wangjing fought between Garib Niwaz and the Burmese in 1718. Many Muslims, then settled in Barak Valley, also rendered their services in the Manipur Levy, formed in 1824 to drive the Burmese from the valley of Manipur. Muslims stood along with the other Manipuris to face the British attack in 1891. Many Muslims fought at the historic battle of Khongjom in 1891. A royal photographer and a close associate of Tikendrajit, Dasu Sardar and his family members were brutally murdered by the British. Not only Muslim men, but Muslim women too showed their courage. Muslim women vendors of Khwairamband Kheithel, took part in the women uprising of 1939 (Second Nupi Lal) against the British and the Indian business community. In the time of peace, Pangal Khutheiba or those Muslims skilled in various trades like carpentry, black-smithy, pottery, weaving, boat-making etc. were engaged in various production units (Pangal Phundrei-shang, Pangal Fisa-shang, Pangal Hisa-sang, etc.) of the kingdom. Other Muslims rendered their services as Ingkhol Sangba or those who manage the vegetable farms of the kingdom. During the British rule (1891-1947), there was a group of departments (loishang) which were in charge of affairs relating to the Muslims (Pangan Sanglen, Pangan Inkhol, Pangan Singa Loisang, Pangan Phundrei Loisang, Pangan Kumar, Pangan Mall and Pangan Likli). Muslims were seen in many other departments. Almost all the buglers and drummers attached to the royal army were Muslims. The Muslims, according to Political Agent R. Brown (1867-75), had the reputation of being honest and hard-working. Political Agent W. Mc Culloch (1863-67) observed that the Muslims were the most industrious sections of the population of Manipur. Muslims continued to take active part in the political development that took place in Manipur after 1947. Two Muslims – Md. Qazi Waliulla and Md. Basiruddin Ahmed – represented the committee formed to draft a constitution for Manipur in 1947. Md. Basiruddin Ahmed was inducted in the Interim Council (Aug. 1947 to Oct. 1948) constituted after King Budhachandra (1941-1955) abolished the Manipur State Darbar in July 1947. He held the portfolios of Medical, PWD and Jail. Four Muslims were elected to the first general election held in 1948 for the State Legislative Assembly. Md. Alimuddin was inducted in the first Council of Ministers. Muslims continued to represent the Territorial Council/Electoral College/Legislative Assembly elections held after Manipur was officially merged to India in Oct. 15, 1949 as a Part-C State.  Muslims took active part in the statehood movement. Md. Alimuddin was one of the prominent leaders of the movement, became the Chief Minister of Manipur (March 1972-March 1973) after it got its statehood in 1972. 

Dr. Sheikhohao Kipgen presented a paper titled, Ethnic Relation and Development: A case study of hill-valley relationship. It attempt to study and analyze some of the aspects of ethnic relation and development prevailing in the context of hill and valley people. Considering the premise that Ethnic Relation and Development are two broad subjects which becomes difficult to correlate each other, the paper aims at addressing certain issues and challenges concerning the ethnic relationship from historical as well as from developmental perspective. It also aims at addressing the disparity in the hill and valley, using some selected indicators like education, agricultural development, poverty etc. It delves on the triangular relationship of the three major groups in Manipur viz. Kukis, Nagas and Meiteis in analytical perspective. Besides, it includes contemporary events, which have a direct bearing on the political, socio-cultural and economic life of the people concerned. It concludes that the multi-ethnic state of Manipur comprises three major communities, Meiteis, Nagas and Kuki-Chin-Mizos.  who lived together for centuries in peaceful co-existence. They shared common joys and sufferings through the ages. Of late, the state is passing through different social turmoil, ethnic violence and social upheavals which include insurgency for secession to movement for greater autonomy or homeland. Certainly there are many underlying socio-economic and political problems which need to be addressed. Today, the majority people’s aspiration for a united and independent Manipur is being confronted by divergent political aspiration of the other two major communities. As the land is a home to different tribes and tongues, whose destiny are interconnected, they should aspire for a composite and developed Manipur by accepting and respecting each other rights, identities and culture. Hill-valley divide syndrome should be done away with and the people should live together on the basis of peaceful co-existence and balanced development.

Dr.Chinglen Maisnam presented a paper titled, GLOBALIZATION, INDIGENOUS PEOPLE AND ETHNIC RELATION: MANIPUR EXPERIENCE: URGENT NEED FOR FRAMING ETHNIC POLICY OF MANIPUR: Indigenous peoples or aboriginal peoples are those who were living on their lands before settlers came from elsewhere. They are also called “first peoples”, tribal peoples aboriginals and autochthons. Indigenous people are not always in the minority. In Bolivia and Guatumala indigenous people make up more than half the population. These people maintain political, cultural and economic characteristics distinct from mainstream society. But they face many problems. Military conquest, ecological destruction, forced labour and lethal diseases reduced indigenous populations in the Americas and Australia by as much as 95%. The General Assembly of the United Nation in its Resolution of 18 December 1990 decided to observe 1993 as International Year for the world’s Indigenous people. The main purpose of the International Year was to promote and strengthen international co-operation in solving the problems of indigenous population particularly in the matters of human rights, the environment, development, education and health. Indigenous peoples now have the right to the full and effective enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms recognized the charter of the UN, the Universal Declaration of Human rights and International Human rights Law. However, except in paper and speech indigenous peoples’ rights, equality and real development do not find place in people’s lives. Increased inequalities, poverty, joblessness, vulnerability, dependence and insecurity caused by globalization policies have further worsened the bargaining capacity of indigenous peoples, tribals and marginalized sections of the society. The UN recognizes that indigenous peoples have the right to decide their own political status and pursue their own economic, social and cultural development. But the political and economic world order under the dominion of the global capital during its neo-liberal globalization stage is unable to guarantee even the survival of mankind in conditions of dignity. We live in a world of diverse peoples. Manipur is also a unified multi-ethnic state jointly created by the people of all its ethnic groups. In the long course of historical evolution people of all ethnic groups in Manipur have maintained close contacts, developed interdependently, communicated and fused with one another, and stood together through weal and woe, forming today’s unified multi-ethnic Manipur state, and promoting the development of the state and social progress. The boundaries and territory of today’s Manipur were developed by all ethnic groups in the big family of the Manipur nation during the long course of historical development. However, in the post-independence period of India, the state is experiencing multifarious problems due to changes in various spheres – political, religions, and socio-economic fronts. The ongoing process of globalization makes the state more complex. Manipur is well known to be a confluence of ethnic and linguistic diversity. The different religions and cultures make the state even more complicated. From ethnic point of view the people of the state may conversely be divided into two broad groups, the “Indid” and the “Mongoloid” “Indid” group mostly comprises the Hindu castes and the Muslims, while the “Mongoloid” group includes various tribes and indigenous people, both in hills and in plains. The main linguistic groups are Tibeto-Mangolism, Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman and Austric. In fact, the state is the homeland of multi-culture tradition, religion, language and diverse ethnicity. As a result of the rapid developments and globalization of the regional economy, the traditional culture in undergoing changes at a rapid stride. People are becoming more and more apathetic towards their traditional culture. In the globalized world, the rational for the division of the world into the politically determined first, second and third may no longer be valid. These changes have led to a change in the system of values, a change in the notion of what is good and what is bad, what is desirable and what is undesirable. The status, identity, social position and other kinds of self-definition – who we are, what we are, and so on – are now determined and displayed by what we wear, what we eat, what we buy and how we spend our leisure ours. The global people equated with greed, extreme individualism, conspicuous consumption, and a kind of blatant dependence on goods and lifestyles to establish their identities old wants, traditionally satisfied by indigenous goods and services are being replaced by new events, requiring goods and services from abroad for their satisfaction. This destroys local self-sufficiency and local jobs and brings in global dependence of the state. Various indigenous and tribal people of the state are very much apprehensive about losing their identities and culture. This apprehension, coupled with rapid deterioration of the living standards of the masses have triggered of various problems including internal conflicts. Though positive points in globalization cannot be denied, however, the gains are not without a heavy cost. With the ‘market’ controlling the economic policies of the state, there has been growing inequality. Global competition, neo-liberalism and structural adjustment programmes are constantly eroding peoples bargaining power. Neo-liberal path of development has promoted new identities, and new interests within local, political processes. Regional, communal, ethnic and linguistic or gender identities are getting precedence over class perspectives. The demassification of production process has created an environment of individuality where men miss to sort out his friends and enemies. This fundamentalism, even while promoting its own agenda, is, very definitely, engaged also in promoting the agenda of neo-liberal globalization. These irrational ideologies grip the minds of the people thereby resulting in taking an exclusivist and sectarian view that exclude “the other”. It is with such a distorted view that fanatical acts of terror are committed. Facts of history are being distorted to meet their sectarian interests. Such a negative development has further aggravated the already high tension and enlarged the scope of the internal conflicts in the state.  To end this tragedy, a theoretical understanding of the current conjuncture is needed. Neither neo-liberal ideology of any sort nor identity based ethnic extremism of any description can provide a way out of the current conjuncture. We urge the state government to formulate Manipur’s ethnic policy.  Formulating a correct ethnic policy in line with Manipur’s actual situation will  foster the unity and harmonious coexistence of all ethnic groups who are striving with one mind for economic development, political stability, cultural prosperity and social harmony. The ethnic minorities, minority areas, and relationships among ethnic groups have all experienced tremendous historic changes. The policy should take into account the following points: A unified multi-ethnic state with diverse cultures; Full equality among ethnic groups; Consolidating and developing the great unity of all ethnic groups; Upholding and improving ethnic autonomy; Accelerating the economic and social development of the ethnic minorities and minority areas; Protection and development of cultures of the ethnic minorities; Striving to foster cadres and talented people of the ethnic minorities; Productive resources and assets of the state should be redistributed in a manner that allows all the ethnic groups to break out of feudal bondage and contribute towards the building of a  new non-oppressive society.

            Question Session: So many questions relating with the issue whether development should precede peace or peace should precede development were raised by the audience. Other pertinent issues raised and expressed concen by both the resource persons as well as by the audience includes the implications and possible outcome in the future vis-à-vis the inter community and inter-ethnic relationship.

Moderator’s Observation: Transition in any society is bound to have conflict. Relating with it, direction, peace, speed, and decision must be determined by the state. This is where the Government comes in. That is why, it becomes very crucial to vigil the nature of development of Indian state. To learn a lesson, we need to go through how such situation has gone through by the South East Asian countries. To be more specific, how our immediate neighbor, Myanmar, by introducing democracy had been able to uplift its image in by bringing about a more positive perceptible change in the international community.

Session 2:

Composite history for our future


Prof. Sadananda, Senior citizen, Manipur

1. Priyadashini Gangte;

2. Jimi Kom;

3. Dr. Thathang Vaiphei


DR.(MRS) PRIYADARSHNI M. GANGTE presented a paper titled, COMPOSITE HISTORY OF MANIPUR AS REFLECTED IN THE SOCIO-CULTURAL TIES AMONG THE PEOPLE OF HILLS & PLAIN.  She highlights that there are legends and traditions, which tell of early relationships between Meitei, Naga, and CHIKIM – the three ethnosis. A Tangkhul (Naga) tradition says that Naga, Meitei and CHIKIM descended from a common ancestor who had three sons. These were the progenitors of the tribes. This tradition puts the CHIKIM as the eldest and the Meitei the youngest. Hudson wrote, “The Tangkul legend is to the effect that one day a sow, heavy with young, wandered from the village of Hundung and was tracked to the valley by the younger of the two brothers who had migrated from the village of MaikeiTungam, where their parents lived, and had founded the village of Hundung. Oknung, the pig’s stone, where the sow was eventually found, is situated on the banks of the Iril River. The sow littered there and the young man stayed to look after her; and as he found the country to his liking, he decided to settle there. For a time he kept up friendly relations with his brother in the hills, who made a practice of sending him every year gifts of produce of the hills and in turn received presents of the manufacture of the plains. The younger brother became well-to-do and proud, and abandoned the custom of sending presents to his brother in the hills, who promptly came down and took what he had been in the habit of getting.” (Vumson :Zo History, Aizawl; p.31). t is also pertinent to mention that the blood brotherhood as claimed by NSCN(IM) top brass may draw our attention to the Ritual History of Manipur ancestor which claimed that Meitei were originated from a common pool of three kin brothers namely –TangkhulSaramPakhangba (origin of Ukhrul and Valley tribes); NongdaLairenPakhangba (wherefrom the lineage of present royal family of Manipur descended); ChotheThangmaiPakhangba (wherefrom the Kukis were believed to have descended); Two dissimilar societies emerged from a homogeneous but complex society on account of the British manipulations who emphasised upon dissimilarities instead of similarities in cultural traditions, language and religious rites and rituals.  The policy of divisiveness created a psyche for differences amidst the tribal groups. These two groups were further alienated when Hindu Vaishnavism was accepted in Manipur which gradually developed strong grip over the Meitei society under the royal patronage. (Dr. N. VijayalakshmiBrara : Religious Movements and Cultural Synthesis in Manipur : An observation on Manipuri Hinduism – Globalisation and the changing scenario of cultural Interaction; Manipur Experience: A paper presented at the centre for Manipuri Studies, M.U., Imphal on 3-4 March, 2003.) Subsequently the King declared Hinduism as State religion during the reign of King Charairongba in the 17th Century and converted the Meiteis into a part of the pan-Vaishnava culture. This alienation was further aggravated when the hill people adopted Christianity in the early part of 19th Century. By this time orthodox Hinduism was firmly entrenched in the Meitei society. With the advent of Christianity the traditional belief system that had provided the hill people with a link, albeit tenuous, with Meitei society ended. The new religion discouraged the hill people from observing their traditional ceremonies and festivals as they were considered by the Christian Missionaries to be ‘Paganistic and primitive’. The rich culture and traditions of the hill people became relics of the past. The role of religion in shaping the present and future of the people were denied thereafter, in one way or the other. Though Christianity did not pose any challenge to the dominant Meitei society, the latter refused to acknowledge the new and alien religion. The ‘new’ ways of life of the Christianized converts among hill people was ignored by the dominant Meitei society, and these societies diverged on different parts ignoring their common traits in their cultural history.

Thus, the two great world religions contributed in no small measures in the causes for ‘drifting away’ of the two groups of blood-fraternity. Politics, subsequently kept them at ‘daggers drawn’ against each other despite their inherent ‘one-ness’, traditionally, culturally and linguistically. Thus, culture, tradition and custom with the passage of time became part and parcel of the Meitei and other communities’ social systems. It is high time to change our minds that we should realize of our being from a common origin. Our Meitei brethren should always continue to have that accommodative thinking, such as, support extended to the appointments of YangmashoShaiza, Mohd. Alimuddin and RishangKeishing; Chief Ministers of Manipur. Well, as that of Rajya Sabha M.P. seat given to RishangKeishing. Thus we can maintain the Meiteis, the Nagas and the Kukis have a common origin, they have shared the same territory and had evolved political authority, shared perception through give and take of progressive society, their future stand is not isolated but in togetherness.

Leivon Jimmy Kom presented a paper titled SOCIO-POLITICAL ASPIRA paTIONS IN MANIPUR: ITS LEGACY & IMPLICATIONS: In it he says, It has been generally agreed that the first plain dweller (meaning Meitei) and the first hill dweller (meaning here the Tribes) in the state were brothers many years ago. Cultural closeness and affinities (like in the festival of MeiraHouChongba) have produced enough evidences for this theory. If this is correct, human history in the land of Manipur began with a close bondage of friendship or brotherhood and not a series of migrations from elsewhere to this ‘Little Paradise’ or the much cherished ‘Jewel of India’. It is also surprising to note that from a mere two brothers in its theoretical aspects, we have six clans among the plain dwellers, Meitei Pangal and thirty four different recognized tribes creating a mosaic of ‘unity in diversity’. But unfortunately, this beauty of diversities today are at crossroads, being pulled by static political integration one the one hand and development of dynamic political aspirations and ethnic polarisation among different groups. Thus, it has become a Question of intricacy whether the theory of human history in Manipur was an absurd, or has ceased to exist as a closed chapter. Whatever, the reasons for the rise of diverse socio-political aspirations in the state could be clubbed into two; first, it was deeply rooted in the colonial legacy of divide & rule; and second, it resides in its vital necessities. On the one hand, these socio-political aspirations were the milestones of freedom movement in the past (i.e. before 1947) and on the other side, the perceived anxieties, concerns, challenges and pre-occupations of the present (i.e. the post independent periods). Or to put it in other words, the objectives of diverse socio-political aspirations, though many, have something in common and encompass good life, good governance, peace, love and close-bonded friendship.  These objectives, in fact, are the requisite of a pragmatic ideal which all sections and groups aspired to achieve and endure.  This paper begins by reviewing some of the heartening historical legacies of colonialism promoting political aspirations  Manipur in the past & present with a view to appraise whether those aspirations could conform to the pursued socio-political objectives in its diversity. This is premised on the fact that dynamic political aspirations comprise unfulfilled or, yet-to-be achieved objectives of pragmatic application, which in more profound way creates normative issues in the socio-political development of a state. The result is, its socio-political aspiration offered diverse perspectives or paths leading to ethnic polarization within a shared territory. Unity in diversity is a hard earned tradition and a line of thought that has enough rooms for every group and section of the society. If this line of thought has become an issue today, what gifts can we bestow to the future generation? Historical legacies of colonialism is not an inherent part of our history, it was planted with an attempt to destroy the bonhomie of reconstructing Manipuri’s identity with diversity. Our hope, trust and aspiration should be directed towards achieving the common and shared objectives sans the socio-political turmoil determining the political status of the land. At the same time, Unity or Integrity without political loyalties from every sections and groups is a waste strategy for upholding peace and tranquility in the region. If ethnic politics made headway in its endeavor, it will be a political tragedy for the people of Manipur.

Dr.Thathang Vaiphei presented a paper titled, Ethnic Relations in Manipur: Politics of Exclusivism.  His paper begins with a premise that his papeOur state today is beset with the scourge of Communalism, Ethnicism, Partiality, Prejudice, Injustice, Regionalism, Greed, Resentment, immorality, economic backwardness/imbalance, mis-governance, dishonesty among others and topping it all Diverse Socio-Political Aspiration and Conflict of interest that provides a challenge to our very existence as a democratic and secular state despite the fact that we are inseparably without an iota of doubt, bonded by common lineage, history and moreover a common destiny. Off late, the virus of ethnic or exclusivism politics also seriously threatens to tear down the intrinsic kindred structure of our society. The paper concludes that in the nation building process there are inescapable privileges given to the majority culture and that the minority cultures face very complex choices. If all public institutions are run in another language, minorities face the danger of being marginalized from the major economic, academic and political institutions of the society. Faced with such dilemma, minorities have three basic options: they can accept integration into the majority culture, although perhaps attempt to renegotiate the terms of integration; they can seek the sorts of rights and powers of self-government needed to maintain their own societal culture-i.e. to create their own economic, political and educational institutions in their own language. That is they can engage in their own form of competing national-building; they can accept permanent marginalization. As the political aspiration and struggle of the tribals in Manipur as it stands today emerge to be just a quest for socio-economic and political space in the guise of political assertion. One cannot but resolve contradictions in a manner that strategically negotiates difficult and chaotic terrains by arguing for a fine balance between ethnicity manifested in myriad complexities. For the tribes, it is only in seeking the rights and power of self-governance that will facilitate their sense of being part and developing in consonance with others. This is so because the mechanism to protect and uphold the minority tribal culture and traditional self-governance system has tragically failed in Manipur. Tribes being an ethno cultural minority in the state, defined by a failure to provide a system for self-government that is supposedly needed to create and sustain their own institutions of governance and development have resulted in an utter resentment against the state. Hence, an understanding of the relationship between ethnic aspirations and demands, economic development, development planning and socio-cultural and land protection is crucial. An objective and inclusive socio-economic and political development policy for Manipur is necessary at this critical juncture. Any development of the hill districts should be based on developing a good governance and proper policy planning which take into account the needs and aspirations of the people and by involving the people at the grass root level. This to happen, Sixth Schedule should be extended in the hill areas and effectively implemented by the devolution of requisite finances, administrative and judicial powers.Needless to say, any delay could prove to be ruinous for the state. A strong political will, sincerity, transparency and understanding on the part of political leadership and the major civil society organizations in Manipur is essential to make a positive change for a common destiny.


Rapporteur: S. Bhubol, Former Editor, The Orient Vision

The National Research centre (NRC) and the State Council of Educational Research and Training (SCERT), Govt. of Manipur has jointly organized a two day national seminar on Ethnics Relations in Manipur :Past Present and Future

And into which eminent resource persons, delegates and representatives of most community living in Manipur took part, and by presenting of valuable comments, remarks and resolution that are given below have been unanimously recommended and passed by the seminar.

Noting down the selective points and remarks such as:

1. Aware of the fact that integrity of Manipur amidst  sharing with pleasing and unwanted moments and events has been preserved not less than 2000 years by years by the united effort of all the brethren  Manipuri communities.

2. Recognising the truism that at the ongoing era of the 21st century, when the countries of the world are competing and struggling to take over one another to attain advanced status, the communities of the state are bound to live in miserable conditions with poor economy, poor means of communication and absence of economy, etc.

3. Taking serious on the unable to make the byoung generations know the fact about the prestigioushistory of Manipur that have been made by intertwining the cultural value of all the communities which might otherwise be termed as composite history of Manipur.

4. Thinking worried on the often having gaps between the common wish of the people and the so called socially welfare programme being taken up by the successive governments that hampers the prospective future of Manipur.

5. Knowing that the indigenous people of Manipur which are comprised of all the ethnic communities being together are similitude to the endangered species under the prevailing alarming situation of influx/illegal intruders in the state.

Setting the long tension towards attaining everlasting peaceful co-existence of Manipuris, the panel of the seminar, have, often thoroughly going through the valuable points highlighted by both the resource persons and unanimous delegates have unanimously resolved

1) that the strong state of Manipur that has been sustained with all necessary qualities shared by the ethnic communities be taken as the right course of history and the same be handed down undisturbed for the forthcoming generations;

2) that proper documentation be conducted accumulate the factual events and happenings in the history that might be helpful in making a composite history of Manipur;

3) that the ethnic relations in Manipur is urgently required to be included in the syllabus/curriculum of school education as compulsory subjects so as to ensure to ensure the young mind the culture of ethnic relations in the state;

4)that the culture, tradition and indigenous value of small communities be preserved with united effort and understanding;

5) that the teaching community, the educators of the young generations be given orientation on ethni-relations and its values to instill the minds of students at any opportune time the value of essence of thought.

6. that necessary initiatives be taken up to draw the attention of the authority regarding speedy development of information technology and the means of communication among the ethnic groups of Manipur.

7. that the alarming situation made by the influx in the state be addressed to the concerned for timely checking under law of the land.

8. that the land ownership rights that have been lying prolonged as deprived rights of Manipuri people living in the hill region be strongly addressed to make the government granting land rights to hill people under the law of the land.


9. That the ethnic studies be instituted in the universities of the state.

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